Q.1. Represent the following decimal numbers in binary using 8-bit signed magnitude, one’s complement and two’s complement:
a. 77
b. -42
c. 119
d. -107

Q.2 You have stumbled on an unknown civilization while sailing around the world. The people, who call themselves Zebronians, do math using 40 separate characters. They would very much like to use computers, but would need a computer to do Zebronian math, which would mean a computer that could represent all 40 characters. You are a computer designer and decide to help them. You decide the best thing to use BCZ binary coded Zebronian. How many bits will you need to represent each character if you want to use the minimum number of bits?

Q.3 Suppose we have just found yet another representation for floating-point numbers. Using this representation, a 12-bit floating –point number has 1 bit for the sign of the number, 4 bits for the exponent, and 7 bits for the mantissa, which is normalized as in the simple model so that the first digit to the right of the radix points must be a 1. Numbers in the exponent are in signed 2’s complement representation. No bias is used and there are no implied bits. Show the representation for the smallest positive number this machine can represent using the following format. What decimal number does this equate to? S Exponent Mantissa

Q.4 Design a circuit with three inputs (x, y and z) representing the bits in a binary number, and three outputs (a, b and c) also representing bits in a binary number. When the input is 1, 2 or 3, the binary output should be one less than the input. When the binary input is 4, 5 or 6, the binary output should be one greater than the input. When the input is 0, the output is 0, and when the input is 7, the output is 7. Show your truth table, all computations for simplification, and the final circuit.

Q.5 A very small company has hired you to install a security system. The band of system that you install is priced by the number of bits encoded on the proximity cards that allow access to certain locations in a facility. Of course, the small company wants to use the fewest bits possible (spending the least amount of money as possible) yet have all of its security needs met. The first thing you need to do is determine how many bits each card required. Next, you have to program card readers in each secured location so that they respond approximately to a scanned card.
This company has four types of employees and five areas that it wishes to restrict to certain employees. The employees and their restrictions are as follows:
a) The Big Boss needs access to the executive lounge and the executive washroom.
b) The Big Boss’s secretary needs access to the supply closet, employee lounge, and executive lounge.
c) Computer room employees need access to the server room and the employee lounge .
d) The janitor needs access to all areas in the workplace. Determine how each class of employee will be encoded on the cards and construct logic diagrams for the card readers in each of the five restricted areas.


Q.11. If you are a computer builder trying to make your system as price-competitive as possible, what features and organization would you select for its memory hierarchy?
Q.2 If you are a computer buyer trying to get best performance from a system, what features would you look for in its memory hierarchy?
Q.3 Pick a specific architecture of your choice and do research to find out how your architecture approaches the concept of memory.


Q.1 Pick an architecture of your choice and do the research to find out how your architecture deals with the concepts of control design?


Q.1 A certain machine uses expanding opcode. It has 16-bit instruction length and 6-bit address field. It supports one address and two address instructions only. It there are ‘n’-two address instruction, then find out the maximum number of one address instructions are supported by this machine?
Q.2 The format of a double operand instruction is:-
Opcode field Operand field-01 Operand field-02
The size of an instruction is 12-bits, in which the size of opcode field is 4-bits and the size of operand field is 4-bits. If 12 double operand instructions and 30 single operand instructions must be implemented, than find out the total number of no-operand instructions that can be implemented on this architecture?
Q.3 Write a program to evaluate the expression:-


Q.1 What does the “reduced” in reduced instruction set computer really mean?
2. Which characteristics of RISC systems could be directly implemented in CISC systems? Which characteristics of RISC machines could not be implemented in CISC machines?
Q.3 Explain the difference between loosely coupled and tightly coupled architectures.
Q.4 What is the difference between UMA and NUMA?

Using zero-address instruction, One address instruction, Two-address instruction, Threeaddress instruction?
Q.5 Why do you think the term random access device is something of a misnomer for disk drive?