UNIT-5

Value-Based Text Readings: The Language of Literature and Science Aldous Huxley, The Aims of Sciences and Humanities Moody E. Prior, The Language of Literature and Science Aldous Huxley, Man and Nature J. Bronowski ,The Mother of Sciences A.J Bahm,Science and Survival Barry Commoner,Humanistic and Scientific Approaches to Human Activities Moody E. Prior,The Effect of Scientific Temper on Man Bertrand Russell .


ESSAY 1- The Language of Literature and Science Aldous Huxley:-

As a medium of literary expression and of scientific expression the common language is inadequate. Both aim at giving a pure sense to the word but the purity of scientific language is different from the purity of literary language. The scientist uses the vocabulary and syntax of common speech in order to say something with the greatest clarity. Sometimes he uses new technical language or jargons to achieve his purpose. The literary artist creates such a language which is capable of conveying the multi-furious significance of human experience on private as well as public levels. The scientist interprets a natural object like rose, lily or daffodil in the language of biochemistry and genetics. The literary artist on the other hand has nothing to do with the scientific interpretation of natural object. His concern is with his private experiences or the private experiences of other people. He enjoys the beauty of these natural objects.

ESSAY 2- The Aims of Sciences and Humanities Moody E. Prior:-

There are certain differences between the methods and aims of science and those of the humanities. One of the most conspicuous differences is that unlike the sciences humanities are concerned with emotional responses. Another difference is that the scientific generalization, concept and theories are neutral to their moral and social implications i.e. the scientific findings do not suggest any human uses to which they may be put or how they can be used for human happiness or self-fulfillment. The humanities on the contrary are concerned with human meaning and response of all humanistic products. Another thing which differentiates science from the humanities is that a scientific product can be defined without any reference to aesthetic response where as the products of the humanities such as a work of music or a poem cannot be defined without any reference to aesthetic responses. Besides scientific generalization make accurate prediction which may be applicable to all future events. Humanistic works on the contrary are concerned with individual experiences and are thus unique. They hint to the diversity of human experience. In other words one single humanistic work may evoke various emotional responses depending on individual experience. Lastly the products of scientific genius are in their final form impersonal while the products of artistic genius are in separable from the special powers of the mind that produce them.

ESSAY 3- The Language of Literature and Science Aldous Huxley:-

As a medium of literary expression and of scientific expression the common language is inadequate. Both aim at giving a pure sense to the word but the purity of scientific language is different from the purity of literary language. The scientist uses the vocabulary and syntax of common speech in order to say something with the greatest clarity. Sometimes he uses new technical language or jargons to achieve his purpose. The literary artist creates such a language which is capable of conveying the multi-furious significance of human experience on private as well as public levels. The scientist interprets a natural object like rose, lily or daffodil in the language of biochemistry and genetics. The literary artist on the other hand has nothing to do with the scientific interpretation of natural object. His concern is with his private experiences or the private experiences of other people. He enjoys the beauty of these natural objects.

ESSAY 4- Man and Nature J. Bronowski:-

Bronowski starts the essay with a question Is man a machine or a self His belief is that man is a part of nature. Almost all educated men except it. In the later half of the 20th centaury also people believed that man is a part of nature in the same sense of a stone or a cactus or a camel is. But this proposition has made the western man loose his self-assurance. He lost his self his selfassurance because this statement means that man is not unique. Bruno was burnt at stake because he would not give up his belief that this earth is not the only world nor man the man the only chosen creature. Man still wants to feel that he is unique and also he is larger than life or atleast larger than nature.

ESSAY 5- The Mother of Sciences A.J Bahm:-

Philosophy functions as a comprehensive science in 3 ways. First it criticizes the sciences, secondly synthesizing and finally is the mother of sciences. Each science makes pre-suppositions of other science. Each science may appear to me in clash with the conclusion of other science. The philosophy thus aims at comparing assumptions and conclusions. Second function performed by philosophy is of synthesis. Philosophy, known as sciences of sciences or as a comprehensive science aims at knowing the whole as reaching to some general conclusion. The Burmese story of a lion also tells that in order to comprehend the total scheme the function synthesis is necessary. As the mother of sciences, philosophy has had a long and interesting history. Initially no distinction was made between philosophy and science. Gradually the particular sciences were born. Among the first were mechanics, mathematics and astronomy. Among the latest were physiology and sociology. No wonder if in future no sciences will be born. In that state the job of philosophy will be greater because then it will be more difficult to synthesize the incoherent sciences dealing with particular. The work of philosophy, the mother of sciences will never be done. It will serve 3 main functions. First to give birth, secondly to set quarrels and finally to harmonize the particular sciences.

ESSAY 6- Science and Survival Barry Commoner:-

There is considerable scientific disagreement about the medical hazards caused by the new pollutants such as DDT actually we have risked these hazards before knowing about the harms they might do. In order to build atom bombs and kill mosquitoes we have been led to the pollutants like strontium 90 and DDT which will be harmful for the future generations but science and technology cannot make progress unless it takes some such risks. The new hazards are neither local nor brief such as the air pollution, synthetic chemicals and radioactive pollutants. Excess of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion might cause floods. A single explosion in a nuclear power plant might kill thousands of people. Science has ignored its major duty of controlling human intervention into nature.

ESSAY 7- Humanistic and Scientific Approaches to Human Activities Moody E. Prior:-

The humanistic and scientific approaches differ from each other. The effect of the scientific ordering to a human activity is to produce detachment from the individual experience, the effect of the humanistic ordering, on the other hand, is to encourage involvement. The incident of March 1951 illustrates it. The prediction of the notational safety council of America that the one millionth traffic fatality since the first recorded automobile death in 1899 would occur on Dec. 22nd 1951. The public response to this tragedy was lost where people were busy in counting the dead bodies on the highways and paying tribute to human genius for accurate measurement. Literature on the contrary is always concerned with the uniqueness of human experience. Though like science it has the capacity to formulate new concepts which give us new out looks. The creations of science are always neutral or indifferent to their human meaning where as good works of literature involve us and arouse the feelings such as pity, fear, sorrow, and pleasure and so on. They extend our sympathies. The tragedy of Antigone which occurred in classical Athens still touches us.
It is true that arts and science contribute in shaping the altitudes of those who remain in touch with them for a long period of time. The humanities and science do well in their respective fields. Science only can adopt the methodological product to reach to some scientific generation. Likewise only humanities can provide us human means of attaining human goals.

ESSAY 8- The Effect of Scientific Temper on Man Bertrand Russell:-

The 17th century men who invented the modern scientific method are credited with inventing a new mathematical technique and also known for abandoning the view that nature confirmed to human tastes and hopes and fears. The brief was that pestilence and earth quakes were sent to punish sin as rains to reward virtue. The scientific temper abundant this point of view. To find out how nature works, we must be guided only by careful investigation of facts. The scientific temper introduces men to the fact that nature does neither what it does, nor what we should wish, nor yet what we should fear. From this scientific attitude the modern world has developed. The embodiments of the western culture in the west, who were, at first, in a tiny majority and now in the main, are ignorant of this development. Whether for good or ill, it is scientific technique that is the main cause of the changes that world is undergoing. The industrial revolution which contributed to the defeat of Napoleon was hated in the country where it originated but later it spread to other western countries and to Russia and Asia which it is changing. Whether the scientific technique which alone the east wants to learn is boon or a disaster is an open question.